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By 2010, 29 countries had planted commercialized biotech crops.In 2000 a paper published in Science introduced golden rice, the first food developed with increased nutrient value.
Genetic inheritance was first discovered by Gregor Mendel in 1865 following experiments crossing peas.Edward Lawrie Tatum and George Wells Beadle developed the central dogma that genes code for proteins in 1941.The double helix structure of DNA was identified by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953.This enabled scientists to isolate genes from an organism's genome.became important tools for transferring information between cells and replicating DNA sequences.Hybridization was another way that rapid changes in plant's makeup were introduced.
It often increased vigor in plants, and combined desirable traits together.
Although largely ignored for 34 years he provided the first evidence of hereditary segregation and independent assortment.
In 1928 Frederick Griffith proved the existence of a "transforming principle" involved in inheritance, which Avery, Mac Leod and Mc Carty later (1944) identified as DNA.
As well as manipulating the DNA, techniques had to be developed for its insertion (known as transformation) into an organism's genome.
Griffiths experiment had already shown that some bacteria had the ability to naturally take up and express foreign DNA.
Charles Darwin described three types of selection: methodical selection, wherein humans deliberately select for particular characteristics; unconscious selection, wherein a characteristic is selected simply because it is desirable; and natural selection, wherein a trait that helps an organism survive better is passed on.