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It is not for man, but for Him who searcheth the mind and heart, to sit in judgment on the guilt which attaches to an heretical conscience. The apostate a fide abandons wholly the faith of Christ either by embracing Judaism, Islamism, Paganism, or simply by falling into naturalism and complete neglect of religion; the heretic always retains faith in Christ. The unity of the Church consists in the connection of its members with each other and of all the members with the head.Now this head is Christ whose representative in the Church is the supreme pontiff.

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Further, the opposition to an article of faith may not be strictly demonstrable, but only reach a certain degree of probability. Modernism fails to combine into a body separate from the Church because it lacks an acknowledged leader, because it appeals to only a small minority of contemporary minds, namely, to a small number who are dissatisfied with the Church as she now is, and because no secular power lends it support. "The right Christian faith consists in giving one's voluntary assent to Christ in all that truly belongs to His teaching. Josephus applies the name ( airesis ) to the three religious sects prevalent in Judea since the Machabean period: the Sadducees, the Pharisees, the Essenes (Bel. In later Greek, philosophers' schools, as well as religious sects, are "heresies". Thomas (II-II:11:1) defines heresy: "a species of infidelity in men who, having professed the faith of Christ, corrupt its dogmas ".The guilt of heresy is measured not so much by its subject-matter as by its formal principle, which is the same in all heresies: revolt against a Divinely constituted authority. The simplicity of the solution, the ostentatious zeal of Arius for the defence of the "one God", his mode of life, his learning and dialectic ability won many to his side.(a) Origin of Heresy The origin, the spread, and the persistence of heresy are due to different causes and influenced by many external circumstances. In particular he was supported by the famous Eusebius of Nicomedia who had great influence on the Emperor Constantine .Heresy is opposed to faith; schism to charity; so that, although all heretics are schismatics because loss of faith involves separation from the Church, not all schismatics are necessarily heretics, since a man may, from anger, pride, ambition, or the like, sever himself from the communion of the Church and yet believe all the Church proposes for our belief (II-II, Q. Both matter and form of heresy admit of degrees which find expression in the following technical formula of theology and canon law. A study of the personal narratives in "Roads to Rome" and "Roads from Rome" leaves one with the impression that the heart of man is a sanctuary impenetrable to all but to God and, in a certain measure, to its owner.

Pertinacious adhesion to a doctrine contradictory to a point of faith clearly defined by the Church is heresy pure and simple, heresy in the first degree. completely ignoring the philosophy of the Schools and thus depriving themselves of the means of clearing away the confusion of their ideas and of meeting sophisms. If now we turn to the Modernist leaders for an account of their defections, we find none attributing it to pride or arrogance, but they are almost unanimous in allowing that curiosity--the desire to know how the old faith stands in relation to the new science --has been the motive power behind them. It is, therefore, advisable to leave individuals to themselves and to study the spread of heresy, or the origin of heretical societies.

The subject-matter of both faith and heresy is, therefore, the deposit of the faith, that is, the sum total of truths revealed in Scripture and Tradition as proposed to our belief by the Church.

Christ, the Apostles, and the Fathers on heresy VII. Church legislation on heresy: ancient, medieval, present-day legislation IX. There are, therefore, two ways of deviating from Christianity : the one by refusing to believe in Christ Himself, which is the way of infidelity, common to Pagans and Jews ; the other by restricting belief to certain points of Christ's doctrine selected and fashioned at pleasure, which is the way of heretics.

The non-cogency of the motives of credibility may arise from three causes: the obscurity of the Divine testimony ( inevidentia attestantis ); the obscurity of the contents of Revelation; the opposition between the obligations imposed on us by faith and the evil inclinations of our corrupt nature. But far more effective in obscuring the mind and leading it into error is pride, which has, as it were, its home in Modernist doctrines. (Addis and Arnold, "A Catholic Dictionary", 7th ed., 1905, 54.) The Council of Nicaea anathematized the heresiarch, but its anathemas, like all the efforts of the Catholic bishops, were nullified by interference of the civil power.

To find out how a man's free will is led to withdraw from the faith once professed, the best way is observation of historical cases. Through pride the Modernists overestimate themselves. Constantine and his sister protected Arius and the Arians, and the next emperor, Constantius, assured the triumph of the heresy: the Catholics were reduced to silence by dire persecution.

In that case the doctrine is termed sententia de haeresi suspecta, haeresim sapiens ; that is, an opinion suspected, or savouring, of heresy (see THEOLOGICAL CENSURES). For the same reason, and proportionately, a thousand small sects have failed, whose names still encumber the pages of church history , but whose tenets interest only a few students, and whose adherents are nowhere.