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If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time the third node appears.Nodulation typically continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes.
Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are often between 6–15 cm (2.4–5.9 in) long and 2–7 cm (0.79–2.76 in) broad.The final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, and climate affecting its form; however, fully mature soybean plants are generally between 51–127 cm (20–50 in) in height Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple.Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease once flowering begins.The remainder consists of 30% carbohydrates, 9% water and 5% ash (table).Soybeans comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ.For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein (TVP), are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, and grows wild in China, Japan, Korea and Russia.
The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, dietary minerals and B vitamins. includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into fully mature plants.
If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate.
The scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum (colors include black, brown, buff, gray and yellow) and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soy milk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made.
Soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat, according to the US Food and Drug Administration: Soy protein products can be good substitutes for animal products because, unlike some other beans, soy offers a 'complete' protein profile. Soy protein products can replace animal-based foods—which also have complete proteins but tend to contain more fat, especially saturated fat—without requiring major adjustments elsewhere in the diet.
Remarkably, seeds such as soybeans containing very high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. Carl Leopold, son of Aldo Leopold, began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s.