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In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the River de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires.
Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds").One of his rulings was to split a region from the Viceroyalty of Perú and create instead the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with Buenos Aires as the capital.However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the porteños, some of them versed in the ideology of the French Revolution, became even more convinced of the need for independence from Spain.During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville the only port allowed to trade with the colonies, to Lima, Peru and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty.Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive.The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Province's capital; rather, it is an autonomous district.
In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province.
In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks.
A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville.
This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires, and a thriving informal yet accepted by the authorities contraband industry developed inside the colonies and with the Portuguese.
This also instilled a deep resentment among porteños towards the Spanish authorities.
The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores; both are now neighborhoods of the city.