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Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo.Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century.
Lisbon is recognised as a alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities (Ga WC) Study Group because of its importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, education and tourism.In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since then it has been a major political, economic and cultural centre of Portugal.Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form.Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, with average temperatures 15 °C (59 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46 °F) at night from December to February.The typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although also in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C (77.0 °F).Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio.
It is continental Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast.
Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean and the River Tagus.
Lusitanian raids and rebellions during Roman occupation required the construction of a wall around the settlement.
During Augustus' reign, the Romans also built a great theatre; the Cassian Baths (underneath Rua da Prata); temples to Jupiter, Diana, Cybele, Tethys and Idea Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), in addition to temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis under Praça da Figueira; a large forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the Castle Hill and the historic city core.
Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge (Castelo de São Jorge) and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals, salt and salted-fish they collected, and for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.