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Protective factors, or factors that promote resiliency, have also been identified in these various domains.Among those most frequently cited are religiosity or spirituality, commitment to academic achievement, strong life skills, social competencies, and belief in self-efficacy.
See also: Drug and Alcohol Abuse; Guidance and Counseling, School; Family Composition and Circumstance, subentry on Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs; Out-of-School Influences and Academic Success; Risk Behaviors, subentry on Smoking and Its Effect on Children's Health. Washington, DC: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, Division of Knowledge Development and Evaluation. Adolescents and young adults are physiologically and behaviorally at higher risk for acquiring STIs.The most salient of these is the "Risk and Protective Factor" framework, which has identified a variety of psychosocial factors associated with ATOD use.In the individual domain, substance use has been linked to values and beliefs about and attitudes toward substances, genetic susceptibility, early ATOD use, sensation seeking, and various psychological disorders including anti-social, aggressive, and other problem behaviors.In the family domain, ATOD use has been associated with familial substance use, poor parenting practices including harsh or inconsistent discipline, poor intrafamilial communication, and inadequate supervision and monitoring of children's behaviors and peer associations.In the peer domain, substance use has been linked to social isolation and association with ATOD-using and otherwise deviant peer networks.Scare tactics, designed to frighten adolescents into avoiding drugs, are often recognized as such by their target audiences and can even be counterproductive. Estimates of HIV incidence in the early twenty-first century suggest that at least 50 percent of the 40,000 new infections in the United States each year are among individuals under twenty-five years old, and 25 percent are among persons aged twenty-one or younger.
Efforts to raise self-esteem as a drug prevention strategy have long been discredited given the lack of association between self-esteem and ATOD use. "Meta-Analysis of 143 Adolescent Drug Prevention Programs: Quantitative Outcome Results of Program Participants Compared to a Control or Comparison Group." Journal of Drug Issues 7University of Michigan News and Information Services. "'Ecstasy' Use Rises Sharply among Teens in 2000: Use of Many Other Drugs Stays Steady, but Significant Declines Are Reported for Some." December 14 news release. "Alcohol Abuse Costs Society $250 Billion Per Year." . Ringwalt Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a significant threat to youth and young adults. The majority of HIV infections among adolescents are contracted through sexual activity.
A variety of strategies have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing or reducing ATOD use.
Project Alert, described by Phyllis Ellickson and colleagues in a 1993 article, and Life Skills Training Program, described by Gill Botvin and colleagues in 1995, are the two most-prevalent effective classroom-based-curricula.
The "Reconnecting Youth" Program, described by Leona Eggert and colleagues in 1994, is designed for high school students who manifest poor academic achievement or who are at high risk for dropping out and other problem behaviors.
In the family domain, the Iowa Strengthening Families Program, described by Richard Spoth and colleagues in 1999, has received considerable attention.
Protective factors in the family and school domains include strong intrafamilial bonds, positive family dynamics, and positive attachment to school.