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Private ownership of water resources is so concentrated in some areas that a single electricity company from Spain, Endesa, has bought up to 80 per cent of the water rights in a large part of the Mapuche-claimed south, causing an outcry.
A further partial or ‘abbreviated’ census was conducted in spring 2017, pending a full census scheduled to take place in 2022.The majority of this population (around three quarters) live in urban areas.According to the 2012 census, 11.3 per cent of the total population self-identify as indigenous.However, the Chilean government has since acknowledged that these numbers may be unreliable due to its failure to account for nearly 10 per cent of the population.According to another estimate produced in a 2013 survey conducted by the Ministerio de Desarrollo Social (Ministry of Development), there are 1.5 million people in Chile who self-identity as indigenous, making up 9.1 per cent of the total population – a significant rise from 1.06 million (6.6 per cent) in 2006.The Afro-Chilean population has received scant attention, partly because it is so small: Chile’s poverty during the colonial period precluded the development of African slavery on any great scale.
Recently, however, there has been a growing interest in Afro-Chilean communities in the country’s northern-most region.
In Chile, water is not a public good nor is it any longer a resource tied to land ownership, as it was up to the mid-1980s.
The current water management policy was developed by the Pinochet regime and has been criticized for having little government control or environmental safeguards.
At present, most Japanese have small shops in Santiago and its suburbs, although a few have market gardens. Chile has a German minority as a result of pro-immigration policies in the nineteenth century; many live in the southern provinces of Valdivia and Osorno.
German influence in this region is noticeable, particularly in commerce, education and architecture.
Indigenous peoples The Yamana who live at Ukika, just north of Cape Horn, and the Qawasqar, who live on Wellington Island, are in a critical condition.