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For the city in Ontario, Canada, see Cambridge, Ontario.For other uses, see Cambridge (disambiguation).-brij) is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately 50 miles (80 km) north of London.
Cambridge became an important trading centre during the Roman and Viking ages, and there is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area as early as the Bronze Age.Their vigorous trading habits caused the town to grow rapidly.During this period the centre of the town shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank of the river to the area now known as the Quayside on the right bank.The first town charter was granted by Henry I between 11.It gave Cambridge monopoly of waterborne traffic and hithe tolls and recognised the borough court.sanitation and fresh water were brought to Cambridge by the construction of Hobson's Conduit in the early 1600s.
Water was brought from Nine Wells, at the foot of the Gog Magog Hills, into the centre of the town.
The university includes King's College Chapel, Cavendish Laboratory, and the Cambridge University Library, one of the largest legal deposit libraries in the world.
The city's skyline is dominated by several college buildings, along with the spire of the Our Lady and the English Martyrs Church, the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital and St John's College Chapel tower.
Cambridge played a significant role in the early part of the English Civil War as it was the headquarters of the Eastern Counties Association, an organisation administering a regional East Anglian army, which became the mainstay of the Parliamentarian military effort before the formation of the New Model Army.
In 1643 control of the town was given by Parliament to Oliver Cromwell, who had been educated at Sidney Sussex College.
In the 19th century, in common with many other English towns, Cambridge expanded rapidly, due in part to increased life expectancy and improved agricultural production leading to increased trade in town markets.