Dating site intergenerational
This process has been referred to as ‘intergenerational transmission’.
Before the advent of this diagnosis, there was a gap in the psychiatric and stress literature with respect to the conceptualization of chronic effects of trauma.Understanding intergenerational transmission of stress, particularly its underlying mechanism(s), is complex, given the challenges related to a consensus on operational definitions and methodological problems.We attempt to clarify the inherent problems of studying intergenerational effects in humans by proposing a framework that distinguishes between offspring effects resulting from parental stress vs those resulting from parental psychopathology, as well as proposing additional methodological approaches and future directed lines of inquiry.The hypothesis that offspring are affected by parental trauma or stress exposure, first noted anecdotally, is now supported empirically by data from Holocaust survivor offspring cohorts and other populations.These findings have been extended to less extreme forms of stress, where differential physical, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes are observed in affected offspring.For instance, stress-exposed parents may confer vulnerability via genetic risk factors (ie, their offspring may inherit the same or similar genetic risks that have an impact on their own stress vulnerability), or through behavioral alterations stemming from the development of stress-related psychopathology (ie, affecting their ability to parent or the childhood environment of the offspring).
In recent years, as a result of advances in the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms, an additional hypothesis has been promulgated—that offspring of severely stress-exposed parents are at risk for adverse outcomes because of enduring epigenetic changes in parental biological systems that have arisen in response to stress exposure and are transmitted (Yehuda and Bierer, 2009).
A limitation of the current literature is that it has particularly focused on the effects of maternal stress/trauma exposure on offspring, especially during pregnancy, and thus the current review preferentially explores intergenerational transmission of stress from this perspective.
Moreover, while we incorporate discussion of seminal animal studies that clarify the mechanistic understanding of intergenerational transmission of stress, we restrict this review to the examination of human studies.
The diagnosis of PTSD filled this gap in nosology and theory by asserting that behavioral and biological consequences associated with exposure to extreme trauma could continue to exert their effects long after exposure to the event.
Prior formulations in psychiatry would have conceptualized mental health responses that do not abate as manifestations of constitutional (ie, genetic or temperamental) factors (Yehuda and Mc Farlane, 1995).
We further extend this definition to include the transmission of stress to offspring via early postnatal care, as animal studies demonstrate the importance of early maternal care of pups in affecting offsprings’ long-term behavioral changes.