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On the other hand, the debts of the Hohnstein Counts were gigantic: they owed 86 citizens of Nordhausen 5744 Mark silver in 1370.
In April 1945, most of the city was destroyed by Royal Air Force bombings, resulting in 8,800 casualties (more than 20% of the population).Nordhausen itself is first mentioned in a 13 May 927 document of King Henry the Fowler.He built a castle here, which is traceable between 9 and became a centre of the empire during the 10th century.Most of the historic buildings in the city were destroyed; it suffered the most damage during the war of any city in Thuringia.A week later the United States troops occupied the city, followed weeks later by the Soviet Red Army.The municipal law of Nordhausen was similar to that of Mühlhausen, hence the Mühlhausen Book of Law was adopted in the mid-13th century.
Today's city wall was established between 12 and cut the old town off from Altendorf in the north-west, the new town in the west and Altnordhausen in the south.
The city was within the Soviet zone of occupation, and later the territory was known as East Germany.
Hundreds of German scientists and their families from Nordhausen were among thousands deported to the Soviet Union after the war to work on advanced rocket and other arms engineering projects.
Nordhausen is the birthplace of the famous mathematician Oswald Teichmüller, known for his groundbreaking work on the Teichmüller spaces – which were named after him.
It is the site of the Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule Nordhausen), founded in 1997 after the reunification of Germany. The Franks colonized the area around Nordhausen about 800, many place names here have a Frankish origin, discernible by the suffix -hausen (like Nordhausen itself, Sundhausen, Windehausen and the later abandoned settlement Stockhausen as well as the neighbouring cities of Mühlhausen, Sondershausen, Frankenhausen and Sangerhausen).
Nordhausen is located approximately 60 km (37 miles) N of Erfurt, 80 km (50 miles) W of Halle, 85 km (53 miles) S of Braunschweig and 60 km (37 miles) E of Göttingen.