Carbon 14 dating calibration
There are some varve pairs that form in a single year, but in many cases, the observational evidence shows that multiple supposed varve couplets can and have formed in a single year (Buchheim and Biaggi 1988; Lambert and Hsü 1979; Makse et al. In fact, it has been documented that at least five pairs of varve couplets can form in a single year due to fluctuations in water flow (Lambert and Hsü 1979).
Yet bat, bird, fish, plant and many other fossils within the Green River Formation strongly suggest rapid, rather than slow and gradual, deposition of these fine laminae (Grande 1984). The Bio Logos Foundation has published a popular-level article by old-earth geologists Gregg Davidson and Ken Wolgemuth presenting arguments for an old earth. One such argument involves counts of sedimentary laminations (“varves”) within the floor of Japan’s Lake Suigetsu. “SG06, A Fully Continuous and Varved Sediment Core from Lake Suigetsu, Japan: Stratigraphy and Potential for Improving the Radiocarbon Calibration Model and Understanding of Late Quaternary Climate Changes.” Quaternary Science Reviews 36: 164–176. Likewise, on November 12, 2012, the author of the Naturalis Historia blog posted a lengthy article on Lake Suigetsu (https://thenaturalhistorian.com/creationism/) which included a reproduction of Figure 7 from the Davidson and Wolgemuth (2010) paper. Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: during the summer months as meltwaters increase flow to the lakes, layers of more coarse sediment are formed, whereas the decreased meltwater in winter results in thinner, more clay-rich layers. A varve is defined as “A sedimentary bed or sequence of laminae deposited in a body of still water within one year’s time . The net result, in theory, is an “annual” varve consisting of a summer and winter depositional couplet layer. This review article focuses in particular on their claim that the good correlation between “varve” counts in Japan’s Lake Suigetsu (Fig.
1) and the radiocarbon ages for plant fossils found within the lake’s sediments present an unanswerable argument for an old earth.
Their article claims that the very large number of Lake Suigetsu varve counts is strong evidence for an old earth.
Creation scientists would argue that most of the lamination couplets are not true annual events.
In the past, uniformitarian philosophy taught that clay-rich mudrocks formed by slow settling out of nearly stagnant water.
It also held that thick deposits of clay-rich rocks needed thousands and even millions of years of slow, stagnant clay deposition, as is observed in parts of the deep ocean today. “Spontaneous Stratification in Granular Mixtures.” Nature 386 (6623): 379–382.
Because varves are by definition “annual,” they have been used to measure the ages of lake deposits and as proof of ages of millions of years.