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Britain acquired what is now Nigeria as a result of this scramble for Africa.
Nigeria's population is extremely diverse—more than 250 ethnic groups are identified.There were village groups, clans, emirates, states, kingdoms, and some empires.The Kanem-Bornu empire goes as far back as the tenth century.Gowon was overthrown in a bloodless military coup on July 29, 1975, when he was attending a summit meeting of the Organization of African Unity.Brigadier General Murtala Ramat Muhammed became the leader of the government.In 1553, the first English ships landed at the Bight of Benin, then known as the "Slave Coast." The present day Nigeria came into existence in 1914, when the Colony of Lagos, the Protectorate of Southern Nigeria, and the protectorate of Northern Nigeria were amalgamated.
Even before the arrival of Europeans, the many nationalities or ethnic groups were highly organized and had law and order.
On October 1, 1960, Nigeria became an independent country, but this independence brought about a series of political crises.
Nigeria enjoyed civilian rule for six years until January 15, 1966 when, in one of the bloodiest coups in Africa, the military took over the government of Tafawa Balewa, assassinated him and replaced him with General J. Later that month Ironsi was killed in a counter-coup, and replaced by General Yakubu Gowon.
Formal administration of any part of Nigeria goes back to 1861 when Lagos, a vital component of the lucrative palm oil trade, was ceded to the British Crown.
At the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, geographical units and artificial borders were created in Africa by European powers without any consideration of cultural or ethnic homogeneity.
The name Nigeria was coined by Lord Lugard's wife in 1897 in honor of the 2,600-mile-long Niger River.