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Burundi is one of the few countries in Africa, along with its neighbour Rwanda among others (such as Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland), to be a direct territorial continuation of a pre-colonial era African state.The early history of Burundi, and especially the role and nature of the country's three dominant ethnic groups; the Twa, Hutu and Tutsi, is highly debated amongst academics.
Both Germans and Belgians ruled Burundi and Rwanda as a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi.Initially the different ethnic groups lived together in relative peace.The first conflicts between ethnic groups can be dated back to the 17th century, when land was becoming ever more scarce because of the continuous growth in population.Burundi's political system is that of a presidential representative democratic republic based upon a multi-party state.The President of Burundi is the head of state and head of government.Burundi is densely populated and has had substantial emigration as young people seek opportunities elsewhere.
The World Happiness Report 2017 ranked Burundi as the world's second least happy nation with a rank of 154.
There are currently 21 registered parties in Burundi. Six years later, on 6 June 1998, the constitution was changed, broadening National Assembly's seats and making provisions for two vice-presidents.
Because of the Arusha Accord, Burundi enacted a transitional government in 2000.
The Kingdom of Burundi was characterized by a hierarchical political authority and tributary economic exchange.
In the mid-18th century, the Tutsi royalty consolidated authority over land, production, and distribution with the development of the ubugabire—a patron-client relationship in which the populace received royal protection in exchange for tribute and land tenure.
Despite common misconceptions, Burundi and Rwanda had never been under common rule until the time of European colonisation.